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Haiti Beaches

Hispaniola is an island in the Caribbean archipelago known as the Greater Antilles. It is the most populous island in the West Indies and the region’s second largest after Cuba.


RuPay was conceived to fulfil India’s Central Bank, RBI’s vision to offer a domestic, open-loop, multilateral system which will allow all Indian banks and financial institutions in India to participate in electronic payments. It is made in India, for every Indian to take them towards a “less cash” society. It is the first-of-its-kind domestic debit and credit card payment network of India, with wide acceptance at ATMs, POS devices and e-commerce websites across India. It has since been launched in a number of other countries having large Indian diaspora.

Malala Yousafzai shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014 with Indian social reformer and campaigner against child labour Kailash Satyarthi. “Already at eleven years of age Malala Yousafzai fought for girls’ right to education. After having suffered an attack on her life by Taliban gunmen in 2012, she has continued her struggle and become a leading advocate of girls’ rights,” the Nobel Prize website states.


The French Open, officially Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France, beginning in late May. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of the four annual Grand Slam tournaments.


Bhutan is a small land-locked country in the Himalayas situated between India and China, with a population of approximately 820,000 people and a bold promise to remain carbon neutral for all time. Bhutan is not only carbon neutral, but carbon negative. Figures show that Bhutan generates only 1.1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2), but the forest sequesters far more CO2 than this. This means they are a net carbon sink for millions of tonnes of CO2 each year.


George Robert Lazenby, Australian actor and model, is best known for having played Ian Fleming’s fictional British secret agent James Bond in the 1969 film “On Her Majesty’s Secret Service”. At the age of 29, he was the youngest actor to have portrayed Bond.


The tributaries of Ganga include Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi and Mahananda from the left bank and Yamuna, Tamsa, Son and Punpun from the right bank. While the Yamuna is the longest tributary of the Ganga, the Ghaghara is the largest tributary by water volume

INTERPOL

The International Criminal Police Organization or Interpol is an inter-governmental organisation. It has 194 member countries, and helps police in all of them to work together to make the world a safer place. In 1923, an initiative was taken at the International Criminal Police Congress in Vienna, where the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) was successfully founded as the direct forerunner of Interpol. Founding members included police officials from Austria, Germany, Belgium, Poland, China, Egypt, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia. The United Kingdom joined in 1928. The United States did not join Interpol until 1938, although a US police officer unofficially attended the 1923 congress. Following the annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938, the organization fell under the control of the Nazis and the Commission’s headquarters were eventually moved to Berlin in 1942. Most members withdrew their support during this period. After the end of World War II, the organization was in 1946 revived as the International Criminal Police Organization by officials from Belgium, France, Scandinavia and the UK. Its new headquarter was established in Paris, then in 1967 moved to Saint-Cloud, a suburb of France’s capital. The headquarter remained there until 1989, when it was moved to its present location in Lyon


Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humourist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. He was lauded as the “greatest humorist this country has produced”, and William Faulkner called him “the father of American literature”.


Farhan Akhtar is an Indian film director, screenwriter, actor, playback singer, producer, and television host. Born in Mumbai to screenwriters Javed Akhtar and Honey Irani, he grew up under the influence of the Hindi film industry. He began his career in Bollywood by working as an assistant director in “Lamhe” and “Himalay Putra”. Akhtar, after establishing a production company named Excel Entertainment along with Ritesh Sidhwani, made his directorial debut with Dil Chahta Hai in 2001 and received critical acclaim for portraying modern youth. The film also won a national award.


Born Joanne Rowling, the Kathleen in K stands for her paternal grandmother’s name. She conceived the idea of Harry Potter in 1990 while sitting on a delayed train from Manchester to London King’s Cross. Over the next five years, she began to map out all seven books of the series. She wrote mostly in longhand and gradually built up a mass of notes, many of which were scribbled on odd scraps of paper. The first book of the series, “Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone”, was published by Bloomsbury Children’s Books in June 1997, under the name J.K. Rowling


Chandrayaan 2 is the second lunar exploration mission developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation or ISRO after Chandrayaan 1. It consisted of a lunar orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar rover, all of which were developed in India. The spacecraft was launched on its mission to the Moon from the second launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre July 22, 2019, by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III. The craft reached the Moon’s orbit August 20, 2019, and began orbital positioning manoeuvres for the landing of the Vikram lander. Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region September 7, 2019, and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates two Earth weeks. However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory starting at 2.1 km altitude, and had lost communication when touchdown confirmation was expected.  Initial reports suggesting a crash were confirmed by ISRO chairman K. Sivan who stated that “it must have been a hard landing


Designed by Thomas Lyon in 1777, the Writers’ Building originally served as the principal administrative office for writers or junior clerks of the British East India Company. In 1800, 1800: Fort William College, opened to train writers in Oriental languages, moved to the Writers’ Building. Since India’s independence in 1947, it housed the office of the Chief Minister of West Bengal until October 4, 2013. The majority of government departments were subsequently moved out to another building named Nabanna in Howrah on a temporary basis for facilitating renovation.


Recognised as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985, the Keoladeo National Park in Rajasthan is an important wintering ground of Palaearctic migratory waterfowl and is renowned for its large congregation of non-migratory resident breeding birds. A green wildlife oasis situated within a populated human-dominated landscape, some 375 bird species and a diverse array of other life forms have been recorded in this mosaic of grasslands, woodlands, woodland swamps and wetlands of just 2,873 hectares.)


In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt, popularly known as Teddy, participated in a bear-hunting trip in Mississippi. While hunting, Roosevelt declared the behaviour of the other hunters “unsportsmanlike” after he refused to kill a bear they had captured. As news of the hunting trip spread, many newspapers around the country featured political cartoons starring “Teddy” and “the bear”. Meanwhile, in Brooklyn, New York, a shop owner named Morris Michtom saw one of the cartoons and had an idea. Michtom and his wife created plush, stuffed bears and placed them in the front window of their shop. With permission from Roosevelt, Michtom named the bears “Teddy bears.


The Rohingya people have faced decades of systematic discrimination, statelessness and targeted violence in Rakhine State, Myanmar. Such persecution has forced Rohingya women, girls, boys and men into Bangladesh for many years, with significant spikes following violent attacks in 1978, 1991-1992, and again in 2016. Yet it was August 2017 that triggered by far the largest and fastest refugee influx into Bangladesh. These people found temporary shelter in refugee camps around Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, which is now home to the world’s largest refugee camp. Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina said in November 2019 that he country is providing shelter to over 1.1 million Rohingya refugees.)


The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice named Antonio defaults on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender, Shylock. It is believed to have been written between 1596 and 1599.


Hyderabad is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. Prior to India’s Independence, it served as the seat of the Nizams, or administrators of Hyderabad State. The Salar Jung family was a noble Hyderabad family under the Nizams. A nobleman of the Salar Jung family, Nawab Mir Yousuf Ali Khan, Salar Jung III (1889–1949) served as Prime Minister of Hyderabad during the Nizam’s rule. He spent a substantial amount of his income, over a period thirty-five years, collecting artefacts from all across the world. After the Nawab died in 1949, the collections were left behind in his ancestral palace Diwan Devdi. The collection was exhibited there as a private museum, named Salar Jung Museum, which was inaugurated by India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on December 16, 1951


Ebola is a rare but deadly virus that causes fever, body aches, and diarrhea, and sometimes bleeding inside and outside the body. As the virus spreads through the body, it damages the immune system and organs. Ultimately, it causes levels of blood-clotting cells to drop. This leads to severe, uncontrollable bleeding. The disease was first identified in 1976, in two simultaneous outbreaks: one in Nzara, a town in South Sudan, and the other in Yambuku in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a village near the Ebola river from which the disease takes its name.


Super cyclonic storm Kyarr was an extremely powerful tropical cyclone that became the first super cyclonic storm in the North Indian Ocean since Gonu in 2007. It was also the strongest tropical cyclone in the Arabian Sea ever recorded and the second-most intense tropical cyclone in North Indian Ocean history, only behind the 1999 Odisha cyclone. It formed on October 24, 2019, and dissipated on November 3, 2019.)


Nawab Mohammad Iftikhar Ali Khan Siddiqui Pataudi was the eighth Nawab of Pataudi and the captain of the India national cricket team for the tour to England in 1946. He also played Test cricket for the England team in 1932 and 1934, making him one of the few cricketers to have played Test cricket for two countries and the only Test cricketer to have played for both India and England. He played in six Tests in all, three as captain of India and three for England.


The Non-Aligned Movement or NAM is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states worldwide. Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, the NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade of the erstwhile Yugoslavia through an initiative of then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and then Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito.


The capital of the central Asian nation of Kazakhstan was earlier known as Astana. After Nursultan Nazarbayev, who served as President of Kazakhstan for 29 years, resigned on March 19, 2019, on March 23, 2019, following a unanimous vote in Kazakhstan’s parliament, Astana was renamed as Nur-Sultan.


The Beijing National Stadium, which was designed for use in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, is also known as the Bird’s Nest. The stadium is saddle-shaped, but the interlocking steel parts resembling a lattice of twigs, make it look like a bird’s nest. It was jointly designed by architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron from Basel-based architecture team Herzog & de Meuron, project architect Stefan Marbach, artist Ai Weiwei, and CADG, which was led by chief architect Li Xinggang.



Then Maldivian President Mohammed Nasheed and his ministers held the world’s first underwater cabinet meeting on October 17, 2009, in a symbolic cry for help over rising sea levels that threaten the tropical archipelago’s existence. Politicians from the Indian Ocean island nation donned scuba gear to send a message to world leaders ahead of that year’s UN climate change conference in Copenhagen.


Chetan Bhagat worked for an investment bank in Hong Kong for nearly a decade and wrote “Five Point Someone” while there. He then moved to Mumbai to focus full-time on his writing career.


“Kaante” is a 2002 Indian Hindi-language action-thriller film directed by Sanjay Gupta, written by Milap Zaveri, and starring an ensemble cast including Amitabh Bachchan, Sanjay Dutt, Sunil Shetty, Lucky Ali, Mahesh Manjrekar, Kumar Gaurav, Namrata Singh Gujral, Rati Agnihotri and Malaika Arora. The film was heavily inspired by Quentin Tarantino’s 1992 movie “Reservoir Dogs” about a gang of diamond thieves whose planned heist of a jewellery store goes terribly wrong.


At the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, Abhinav Bindra titled the 10-metre Air Rifle event in shooting, thus bagging the first individual gold medal for India in the quadrennial sporting extravaganza.  It was also India’s first gold medal since 1980, when the men’s field hockey team won the gold in the Moscow Olympic Games.


Vinod Dham is known as ‘Father of the Pentium Chip’ for his contribution to the development of Intel’s Pentium micro-processor. He is also one of the co-inventors of Intel’s first Flash Memory Technology (ETOX). He is a mentor, advisor and sits on the boards of companies, including start-ups funded through his India-based fund Indo-US Venture Partners, where he is the founding managing director.


Before the Partition of India in 1947, regular passenger services used to connect Kolkata to cities lke Khulna and Jessore in East Bengal, as part of the Eastern Bengal Railway. After the Partition, the railway suffered greatly – visa restrictions were introduced, and the lack of border stations with proper customs and immigration facilities led to the shutdown of services. The remaining train services between India and Bangladesh, then known as East Pakistan, were suspended during the 1965 India-Pakistan War. Expensive air travel and limited bus services were the only means of transport between the two Bengals ever since. After four decades, the Maitree Express I was launched on April 14, 2008, following years of negotiations between India and Bangladesh. Maitree means “friendship”, denoting the significance of this train service to the foreign relations between the two countries.


Since the signing of “Declaration on the India-Russia Strategic Partnership” in October 2000, India-Russia ties have acquired a qualitatively new character with enhanced levels of cooperation in almost all areas of the bilateral relationship including political, security, defence, trade and economy, science and technology, and culture. Under the Strategic Partnership, several institutionalised dialogue mechanisms operate at both political and official levels to ensure regular interaction and follow-up on cooperation activities. During the visit of the Russian President to India in December 2010, the Strategic Partnership was elevated to the level of a “Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership.” The Annual Summit meeting between the Prime Minister of India and the President of the Russian Federation is the highest institutionalised dialogue mechanism in the strategic partnership between India and Russia.


Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia was born in Amritsar, Punjab, India, to Hari Om Bhatia and Aruna Bhatia in a Punjabi family. Known professionally as Akshay Kumar, he is an Indian actor, producer, martial artist and television personality who works in Bollywood films. In a career spanning over 29 years, Kumar has appeared in over 100 films and has won several awards, including the National Film Award for Best Actor for his performance in “Rustom” (2016), and two Filmfare Awards for “Ajnabee” (2001) and “Garam Masala” (2005).


Bob Dylan was born in Duluth, Minnesota. His original name was Robert Zimmerman and his grandparents were Jewish immigrants from present-day Ukraine and Lithuania. Already at school he formed several bands. Bob Dylan’s songs are rooted in the rich tradition of American folk music and are influenced by the poets of modernism and the beatnik movement. Early on, his lyrics incorporated social struggles and political protest. Love and religion are other important themes in his songs. His writing is often characterized by refined rhymes and it paints surprising, sometimes surreal imagery. Since his debut in 1962, he has repeatedly reinvented his songs and music. Bob Dylan has also written prose, including his memoirs “Chronicles”.


Julian Paul Assange, an Australian editor, publisher, and activist, founded WikiLeaks in 2006. WikiLeaks came to international attention in 2010 when it published a series of leaks provided by US Army intelligence analyst Chelsea Manning. These leaks included the Collateral Murder video (April 2010), the Afghanistan war logs (July 2010), the Iraq war logs (October 2010), and CableGate (November 2010). After the 2010 leaks, the United States government launched a criminal investigation into WikiLeaks. In November 2010, Sweden issued an international arrest warrant for Assange after questioning him months earlier about allegations of sexual assault. Assange denied the allegations, and said they were just a pretext for him to be extradited from Sweden to the United States because of his role in publishing secret American documents. Assange surrendered to UK police on December 7, 2010, but was released on bail within 10 days. Having been unsuccessful in his challenge to the extradition proceedings, he breached his £340,000 bail in June 2012 to seek asylum from Ecuador. In August 2012, Assange was granted asylum by Ecuador due to fears of political persecution and possible extradition to the US. In January 2018, he was granted Ecuadorian citizenship; however, it was suspended in April 2019.


Vistara is a joint venture of Tata Sons Private Limited and Singapore Airlines Limited (SIA), wherein Tata Sons holds 51 per cent stake in partnership and Singapore Airlines owns 49 per cent stake. The company is registered as TATA SIA Airlines Limited. The brand name ‘Vistara’ is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Vistaar’ that means ‘a limitless expanse’. On January 9, 2015, Vistara started its operations with a maiden flight from Delhi to Mumbai. In a short span of time, Vistara has rapidly expanded its footprint, both in terms of network and service proposition.


“Long Walk to Freedom” is an autobiography written by anti-apartheid icon and former South African President Nelson Mandela, and first published in 1994 by Little Brown & Co. The book profiles his early life, coming of age, education and 27 years in prison. Under the apartheid government, Mandela was regarded as a terrorist and jailed on the infamous Robben Island for his role as a leader of the then-outlawed ANC. He later achieved international recognition for his leadership as president in rebuilding the country’s once segregated society. The last chapters of the book describe his political ascension, and his belief that the struggle still continued against apartheid in South Africa.


Mir was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996. It had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft. At the time it was the largest artificial satellite in orbit, succeeded by the International Space Station (ISS) after Mir’s orbit decayed. The station served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of space. “Mir translates into English as ‘world’, ‘peace’, and ‘village’, but a single-word translation misses its full significance,” the NASA website’s history section states

In the winter of 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts in the US, William G. Morgan, a Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette, a name derived from the game of badminton, as a pastime to be played (preferably) indoors and by any number of players. The game took some of its characteristics from other sports such as tennis and handball. Another indoor sport, basketball, was catching on in the area, having been invented just 16 km away in the city of Springfield, Massachusetts, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School (now called Springfield College), the game quickly became known as volleyball.

Long before his name became synonymous with the modern legal thriller, John Grisham was working 60-70 hours a week at a small Southaven, Mississippi, law practice, squeezing in time before going to the office and during courtroom recesses to work on his hobby – writing his first novel. Born on February 8, 1955 in Jonesboro, Arkansas, to a construction worker and a homemaker, Grisham as a child dreamed of being a professional baseball player. Realising he didn’t have the right stuff for a pro career, he shifted gears and majored in accounting at Mississippi State University. After graduating from law school at Ole Miss in 1981, he went on to practice law for nearly a decade in Southaven, specialising in criminal defence and personal injury litigation. In 1983, he was elected to the state House of Representatives and served until 1990. One day at the DeSoto County courthouse, Grisham overheard the harrowing testimony of a 12-year-old rape victim and was inspired to start a novel exploring what would have happened if the girl’s father had murdered her assailants. Getting up at 5 a.m. every day to get in several hours of writing time before heading off to work, Grisham spent three years on “A Time to Kill” and finished it in 1987. Initially rejected by many publishers, it was eventually bought by Wynwood Press, who gave it a modest 5,000 copy printing and published it in June 1988. That set Grisham’s career as the master of legal thrillers that include “The Firm”, “The Pelican Brief”’ and “A Painted House” among others. 

The economy of California is the largest in the United States, boasting a $3 trillion gross state product as of 2018. As a sovereign nation (2018), California would rank as the world’s fifth largest economy, ahead of India and behind Germany. Additionally, California’s Silicon Valley is home to some of the world’s most valuable technology companies, including Apple, Alphabet Inc., and Facebook. In total, over 10 per cent of Fortune 1000 companies were based in California in 2018, the most of any state. As both the most populous US state and one of the most climatologically diverse states, the economy of California is varied, with many sizable sectors. The most dominant of these sectors include finance, business services, government and manufacturing. Much of the economic activity is concentrated in the coastal cities, especially Los Angeles, which has a relative focus on media – most notably Hollywood – and the San Francisco Bay Area, which predominantly concentrates on technology. Both cities, along with other major ports such as San Diego, also act as significant trade hubs to and from the United States. Furthermore, California’s Central Valley is one of the most productive agricultural regions on Earth, growing over half the country’s fruits, vegetables, and nuts.

Deepika Padukone, the daughter of the badminton player Prakash Padukone, was born in Copenhagen and raised in Bengaluru. As a teenager, she played badminton in national level championships but left her career in the sport to become a fashion model. She soon received offers for film roles and made her acting debut in 2006 as the title character of the Kannada film “Aishwarya”. Padukone then played a dual role opposite Shah Rukh Khan in her first Bollywood release, the romance “Om Shanti Om” (2007), which won her the Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut.

Gangtok is a city, municipality, the capital and the largest town of the Indian state of Sikkim. It also is the headquarters of the East Sikkim district. Gangtok is in the eastern Himalayan range, at an elevation of 1,650 m. The town’s population of 100,000 are from different ethnicities such as Bhutia, Lepchas and Indian Gorkhas. Within the higher peaks of the Himalaya and with a year-round mild temperate climate, Gangtok is at the centre of Sikkim’s tourism industry. Gangtok rose to prominence as a popular Buddhist pilgrimage site after the construction of the Enchey Monastery in 1840. The monastery belongs to the Nyingma order of Vajrayana Buddhism.

Mary Elizabeth Anderson (February 19, 1866 – June 27, 1953) was an American real estate developer, rancher, viticulturist and inventor of the windshield wiper blade. On November 10, 1903, Anderson was granted her first patent for an automatic car window cleaning device controlled from inside the car, called the windshield wiper. In a visit to New York City in the winter of 1903, in a trolley car on a frosty day, Anderson observed that a trolley car driver struggled to see past the windows because of the falling sleet. When she returned to Alabama she hired a designer for a hand-operated device to keep a windshield clear and had a local company produce a working model. She applied for, and in 1903 was granted, a 17-year patent for a windshield wiper. Her device consisted of a lever inside the vehicle that controlled a rubber blade on the outside of the windshield. The lever could be operated to cause the spring-loaded arm to move back and forth across the windshield. A counterweight was used to ensure contact between the wiper and the window. Similar devices had been made earlier, but Anderson’s was the first to be effective.

In 2015, Barack Obama became the first US President to be the chief guest at India’s Republic Day parade. His presence at the parade was at Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s personal invitation. Obama and his wife Michelle sat in a special glass enclosure along with Modi, then Vice-President Hamid Ansari and other dignitaries and watched the colourful display of military contingents in their various uniforms walking past the VVIP enclosure. However, Obama was not the first US President to be invited for the Republic Day parade. Former US President Bill Clinton was also invited for the Republic Day parade on behalf of former Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao in 1994 but he declined as he was not willing to change the timing of his State of the Union address 

Diplomatic relations between India and Mauritius were established in 1948. Earlier, Mauritius maintained contacts with India through successive Dutch, French and British occupation. From 1820s, Indian workers started coming to Mauritius to work on sugar plantations. From 1834, when slavery was abolished by the British Parliament, large numbers of Indian workers began to be brought to Mauritius as indentured labourers. In all, about half a million Indian indentured labourers are estimated to have been brought into Mauritius between 1834 and the early decades of the 20th century, out of whom about two-thirds settled permanently in Mauritius. Indian origin population constitutes about 68 per cent of Mauritian population. The idea for the setting up of a World Hindi Centre was first mooted at the first World Hindi Conference held in January, 1975 in Nagpur, India, by Late Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, then Prime Minister and head of the Mauritian Delegation at the Conference. That idea took shape of a firm resolution in the Second World Hindi Conference held in Mauritius and the proposal was reiterated in subsequent World Hindi Conferences and slowly took shape of a World Hindi Secretariat to be established in Mauritius. An agreement was signed between the governments of India and Mauritius and the World Hindi Secretariat was set up pursuant to the enactment of the WHS Act by the national assembly of Mauritius. Soon after the Fifth World Hindi Conference held in Trinidad and Tobago, in April 1996, the government of Mauritius appointed Dr Sarita Boodhoo as advisor to the Minister of Education and Scientific Research on matters pertaining to the World Hindi Secretariat. In June 1996, with the support of the government of India through the high commission of India, the World Hindi Secretariat unit was set up at the Ministry of Education and Scientific Research in Mauritius.

Pattachitra evolved from Sanskrit. When broken down into its two parts, Patta means cloth, and Chitra means picture. Hence, Pattachitra is a picture painted on a piece of cloth. This form of art is closely related to the cult of Shri Jagannath and the temple traditions in Puri. Believed to have originated as early as the 12th century, it is one of the most popular living art forms, and people in Odisha practice it to this day.

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Roman god of war and is often referred to as the ‘Red Planet’. The latter refers to the effect of the iron oxide prevalent on Mars’ surface, which gives it a reddish appearance distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.

Vexillology is the study of the history, symbolism and usage of flags or, by extension, any interest in flags in general. The word is a synthesis of the Latin word vexillum (“flag”) and the Greek suffix -logia (“study”). A person who studies flags is a vexillologist, one who designs flags is a vexillographer, and the art of flag-designing is called vexillography. One who is a hobbyist or general admirer of flags is a vexillophile.

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of states in South Asia. Its member states are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAARC was founded in Dhaka on December 8, 1985. The Secretariat of the Association was set up in Kathmandu on January 17, 1987. It coordinates and monitors implementation of activities, prepares for and services meetings, and serves as a channel of communication between the association and its member states as well as other regional organisations. The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary General, who is appointed by the Council of Ministers from member states in alphabetical order for a three-year term. The Secretary General is assisted by eight Ddirectors on deputation from the member states. The SAARC Secretariat and member states observe December 8 as the SAARC Charter Day.

“Saat Hindustani” (English: Seven Indians) is a 1969 Indian film, written and directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas. The film portrays the heroic story of seven Indians who attempt to liberate Goa from Portuguese colonial rule. The cast included Madhu, Utpal Dutt, Shehnaz, A.K. Hangal, Anwar Ali and now movie megastar Amitabh Bachchan who made his debut in the Hindi film industry. 

Founded as ‘Canara Bank Hindu Permanent Fund’ in 1906, by late Ammembal Subba Rao Pai, a philanthropist, this small seed blossomed into a limited company as ‘Canara Bank Ltd.’ in 1910 and became Canara Bank in 1969 after nationalisation. The bank, which was established in Mangalore, now has its headquarter in Bengaluru. The bank also has offices abroad in London, Hong Kong, Moscow, Shanghai, Dubai, Tanzania and New York. 

Jim Corbett National Park, which is a part of the larger Corbett Tiger Reserve, a Project Tiger Reserve lies in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand. The magical landscape of Corbett is well known and fabled for its tiger richness. Established in the year 1936 as Hailey National Park, named after Sir Malcolm Hailey, the Governor of the ten United Provinces, the park was renamed as Ramganga National Park in 1954-55 and then as Corbett National Park in 1955-56 in honour of Jim Corbett, the well-known author and naturalist. Corbett has the glory of being India’s oldest and most prestigious national park. It is the place where Project Tiger was first launched in 1973. 

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping held their first Informal Summit in Wuhan in China’s Hubei province on April 27-28, 2018, to exchange views on overarching issues of bilateral and global importance, and to elaborate their respective visions and priorities for national development in the context of the current and future international situation. It was the initiative of President Xi to normalise ties after the Indian and Chinese armies were in a 73-day face-off position at Doklam on the India-Bhutan-China international tri-junction.  

Social media platform Twitter was designed in 2006 by Evan Williams and Biz Stone, each of whom worked at Google before leaving to launch the podcasting venture Odeo. Entrepreneur Noah Glass was another co-founder of Odeo. Williams, who had previously created the popular Web authoring tool Blogger, began experimenting with one of Odeo’s side projects –  a short message service (SMS) then called Twttr. Seeing a future for the product, Williams bought out Odeo and started Obvious Corp. to further develop it. Engineer Jack Dorsey joined the management team, and the completed version of Twitter debuted at the South by Southwest music conference in Austin, Texas, in March 2007. The following month Twitter, Inc., was created as a corporate entity.

The Abel Prize was established by the Norwegian government in 2002 on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel’s birth. The Abel Prize recognises contributions to the field of mathematics that are of extraordinary depth and influence. The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters awards the Abel Prize based on a recommendation from the Abel committee. The prize carries a cash award of 6 million Norwegian Krone and has been awarded annually since 2003. In addition to honouring outstanding mathematicians, the Abel Prize contributes towards raising the status of mathematics in society and stimulating the interest of children and young people in mathematics. Among the projects that get support is the Norwegian Mathematical Olympiad and the Abel Symposium.

“Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” is a popular English lullaby. The lyrics are from an early 19th century English poem by Jane Taylor, “The Star”. The poem, which is in couplet form, was first published in 1806 in “Rhymes for the Nursery”, a collection of poems by Taylor and her sister Ann. It is sung to the tune of the French melody “Ah! vous dirai-je, maman”, which was published in 1761 and later arranged by several composers, including Mozart with Twelve Variations on “Ah vous dirai-je, Maman”. The English lyrics have five stanzas, although only the first is widely known: “Twinkle, twinkle, little star / How I wonder what you are! / Up above the world so high, / Like a diamond in the sky.”

Rahul Dravid is one of the greatest cricket players the game has seen. “A Biography of Rahul Dravid: The Nice Guy Who Finished Last”, the biography written by Devendra Prabhudesai, encompasses the life and times of the great player. It throws light on his trials and tribulations, wins and losses and other elements that shaped his glorious cricketing career. He was the first Indian to score five double centuries in Test cricket and four centuries in a consecutive four Test innings. His career might have been overshadowed by the success of Indian cricketing legend Sachin Tendulkar but it was not enough to bring his spirits down and he continued to play his best. Being the first batsman to have scored a century against every country that played Test matches, Dravid outdid himself continuously in his career.

“Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah” (English: Taarak Mehta’s inverted spectacles) is an Indian Hindi-language television sitcom. One of India’s longest running television shows, it is produced by Neela Tele Films. The show went on air on July 28, 2008. It airs on Sony SAB. The show is based on the column “Duniya Ne Undha Chashma” written by columnist and journalist/playwright Taarak Mehta for the Gujarati weekly magazine Chitralekha. Dilip Joshi plays the role of Jethalal Gada in “Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah”. Notable among his tele-serials in Hindi are “Kabhi Yeh Kabhi Who”, “Hum Sab Ek Hain”, “Shubh Mangal Savadhan”, “Kya Baat Hai”, “Daal Mein Kala” and “Meri Biwi Wonderful”. He appeared in the children’s comedy “Agadam Bagdam Tigdam” as Uncle Tappu, as well as in the 2009 films “Dhoondte Reh Jaaoge” and Ashutosh Gowarikar’s “What’s Your Raashee”.

Finacle is a core banking product developed by the Indian IT bellwether Infosys that provides universal digital banking functionality to banks. In August 2015, Finacle became part of EdgeVerve Systems Limited, a wholly owned product subsidiary of Infosys. Written in Java, the software was initially released in 1999. Finacle is used by banks across 100 countries to serve over one billion customers.

Brisbane is the capital of and the most populated city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. The Brisbane Cricket Ground, commonly known as the Gabba, is the city’s major sports stadium. The nickname Gabba derives from the suburb of Woolloongabba, in which it is located. The Gabba is an icon of the Brisbane landscape and is the home ground for the Brisbane Lions, Brisbane Heat and Queensland Bulls. It is regarded as an impenetrable fortress for the Australian cricket team, with one of the best cricket wickets in the world. First established in 1895, the Gabba has hosted many major events including cricket, AFL, baseball, rugby league, rugby union, Olympic soccer and major sell-out concerts. The venue has a capacity of 42,000 and a range of function and meeting spaces that are used extensively throughout the year.

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organisation based in the United Kingdom focused on human rights. The organisation claims it has more than seven million members and supporters around the world. Amnesty International was founded in 1961 by Peter Benenson, a British lawyer. It was originally his intention to launch an appeal in Britain with the aim of obtaining an amnesty for prisoners of conscience all over the world. The committee working for this cause soon found that a detailed documentation of this category of prisoners would be needed. Gradually they realized that the work would have to be carried out on a more permanent basis; the number of prisoners of conscience was enormous and they were to be found in every part of the world. In 1977, Amnesty International was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. According to the Nobel Prize website, Amnesty International is a world-embracing movement working for the protection of human rights. It is independent of all governments and is neutral in its relation to political groups, ideologies and religious dividing lines. The movement works for the release of women and men who have been arrested for their convictions, the colour of their skin, their ethnic origin or their faith – provided that they have not themselves used force or exhorted others to resort to violence. It is this category of prisoners that Amnesty International calls “prisoners of conscience”.

The Sargasso Sea is a vast patch of ocean named for a genus of free-floating seaweed called Sargassum. While there are many different types of algae found floating in the ocean all around world, the Sargasso Sea is unique in that it harbours species of sargassum that are ‘holopelagi’ – meaning that the algae not only freely floats around the ocean, but it reproduces vegetatively on the high seas. Other seaweeds reproduce and begin life on the floor of the ocean. While all other seas in the world are defined at least in part by land boundaries, the Sargasso Sea is defined only by ocean currents. It lies within the Northern Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. The Gulf Stream establishes the Sargasso Sea’s western boundary, while the Sea is further defined to the north by the North Atlantic Current, to the east by the Canary Current, and to the south by the North Atlantic Equatorial Current. Since this area is defined by boundary currents, its borders are dynamic, correlating roughly with the Azores High Pressure Centre for any particular season.

Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (1858-1913) was a German thermal engineer who invented the internal-combustion engine that bears his name. Diesel, the son of German-born parents, grew up in Paris until the family was deported to England in 1870 following the outbreak of the Franco-German War. From London, Diesel was sent to Augsburg, his father’s native town, to continue his schooling. There and later at the Technische Hochschule (Technical High School) in Munich he established a brilliant scholastic record in fields of engineering. At Munich, Diesel devoted much of his time to the self-imposed task of developing an internal combustion engine, the Britannica.com website states. For a time he experimented with an expansion engine using ammonia. About 1890, in which year he moved to a new post with the Linde firm in Berlin, he conceived the idea for the diesel engine. He obtained a German development patent in 1892 and the following year published a description of his engine under the title “Theorie und Konstruktion eines rationellen Waremotors” (Theory and Construction of a Rational Heat Motor). With support from the Maschinenfabrik Augsburg and the Krupp firms, he produced a series of increasingly successful models, culminating in his demonstration in 1897 of a 25-horsepower, four-stroke, single vertical cylinder compression engine. The high efficiency of Diesel’s engine, together with its comparative simplicity of design, made it an immediate commercial success, and royalty fees brought great wealth to its inventor.

Arthur Charles Clarke (1917-2008), the famous British science fiction writer, futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host, popularised the idea that geostationary satellites would be ideal telecommunications relays. He first described this in a letter to the editor of Wireless World in February 1945 and elaborated on the concept in a paper titled “Extra-Terrestrial Relays – Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage?”, published in Wireless World in October 1945. The geostationary orbit is now sometimes known as the Clarke Orbit or the Clarke Belt in his honour.

Sound volume is measured in decibels (db), a dimension-less, logarithmic scale where an increase of 3db corresponds to doubling in power. At 125db (a jet taking off 50 m away), sound becomes painfully loud. The loudest sound a human being can safely hear is 160db because above that there is a chance his or her eardrums will rupture. But sound is just a pressure wave and there is no theoretical upper limit to its intensity.

The Adidas Telstar 18 was the official match ball of the 2018 FIFA World Cup, which was held in the Russian Federation. The name of the ball was revealed on November 9, 2017, at the official presentation in Moscow by Lionel Messi, winner of the Golden Ball at the 2014 FIFA World Cup, and attended by winners of the World Cup in different years: Zinedine Zidane, Kaká, Alessandro Del Piero, Xabi Alonso and Lukas Podolski. The Telstar 18 pays homage to Adidas’s first World Cup match ball, named the Telstar, which was itself named for its resemblance to the original Telstar communications satellite. The word “Telstar” is a combination of the words “television” and “star”.

The Battle of Saragarhi was fought on September 12, 1897, between the British Indian Empire and the Afghan tribesmen. Around 1,000-1,500 Orakzai tribesmen attacked the Saragarhi post, which was held by 21 soldiers of the 36th Sikhs (now the 4th battalion of the Sikh Regiment). The Sikhs, led by Havildar Ishar Singh, chose to fight to the death, in what is considered by some military historians as one of history’s greatest last stands. The post was recaptured two days later by another British Indian contingent. The 4th battalion of the Sikh Regiment of Indian Army commemorates the battle every year on September 12, as Saragarhi Day. The film “Kesari” (English: Saffron) is written and directed by Anurag Singh. It was jointly produced by Karan Johar, Aruna Bhatia, Hiroo Yash Johar, Apoorva Mehta and Sunir Khetarpal under the banners of Dharma Productions, Cape of Good Films, Azure Entertainment and Zee Studios. The film stars Akshay Kumar with Parineeti Chopra, Mir Sarwar, Vansh Bhardwaj, Jaspreet Singh, Vivek Saini and Vikram Kochhar in supporting roles.

Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming, entertainment and financial services. Sony began in the wake of World War II. In 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo. The company started with a capital of 190,000 yen and a total of eight employees. On May 7, 1946, Ibuka was joined by Akio Morita to establish a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo (Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Corporation). The company built Japan’s first tape recorder, called the Type-G. In 1958, the company changed its name to “Sony”.

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The Berlaymont is an office building in Brussels, the capital of Belgium, which houses the headquarters of the European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union. The structure is located at Schuman roundabout at Wetstraat 200 Rue de la Loi, in what is known as the “European Quarter”.

“Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance” (1995) is a memoir by Barack Obama, who was elected as US President in 2008. The memoir explores the events of Obama’s early years in Honolulu and Chicago up until his entry into law school in 1988. Obama published the memoir in July 1995, when he was starting his political campaign for Illinois Senate.

George VI (1895-1952) was king of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from December 11, 1936, until his death. From 1939, the British Empire and Commonwealth – except Ireland – declared war on Nazi Germany. War with the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan followed in 1940 and 1941, respectively. The king and his family remained in London during the German bombing campaign in Britain in 1940-41 and his popularity soared as he shared the hardships of the common people. Britain and its allies were victorious in 1945, but the British Empire declined. Ireland had largely broken away, followed by independence of India and Pakistan in 1947. George relinquished the title of Emperor of India in June 1948 and instead adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth. He and died of coronary thrombosis in 1952. He was succeeded by his daughter, Elizabeth II.

Arun Jaitley Stadium is a cricket stadium located on Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi, India. Established in 1883 as the Feroz Shah Kotla Ground (being near the Kotla fort), it is the second oldest international cricket stadium still functional in India, after the Eden Gardens in Kolkata. On 12 September 2019, the stadium was renamed in memory of former Indian Finance Minister and former Delhi and District Cricket Association (DDCA) president Arun Jaitley. The decision to name the stadium after the politician, who was once the president of DDCA and also the vice-president of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) came after he died on August 24, 2019. Interestingly the ground would retain the name of Feroze Shah Kotla Ground. Jaitley was credited with turning the stadium into a modern facility, increasing its seating capacity and building better facilities for players during his tenure as DDCA president.

Mahashian Di Hatti Private Limited, doing business as MDH, is an Indian spice producer and seller based in New Delhi, India. Mahashay Chunni Lal Gulati set up the company in 1919 in Sialkot, Pakistan. It is associated with Mahashay Chunni Lal Charitable Trust. Mahashay Dharam Pal Gulati, the son of the founder, moved to Delhi after the partition of India. He opened a shop in a shack and started selling spices like his father. He later opened his shop at Ajmal Khan Road, Karol Bagh, and expanded from there. In 1959, he bought a plot in Kirti Nagar in Delhi to set up his own spice factory. On March 16, 2019, the President of India Ram Nath Kovind conferred the Padma Bhushan award to Mahashay Dharampal Gulati for trade and industry.

In the 1890s, William Hesketh Lever, founder of Lever Brothers, wrote down his ideas for Sunlight Soap – his revolutionary new product that helped popularise cleanliness and hygiene in Victorian England. It was “to make cleanliness commonplace; to lessen work for women; to foster health and contribute to personal attractiveness, that life may be more enjoyable and rewarding for the people who use our products”. Introduced in the United States in 1924, Lux became the world’s first mass market toilet soap with the tagline, “Made as fine as French soap”. Today, the Lux range of products includes beauty soaps, shower gels, bath additives, hair shampoos and conditioners.

Namdapha National Park is the largest protected area in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot and is located in Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India. It is also the third largest national park in India in terms of area. It is located in the Eastern Himalayan sub-region and is recognised as one of the richest areas in biodiversity in India. The park harbours the northernmost lowland evergreen rainforests in the world at 27°N latitude. Because of the many different vegetation zones, the park is home to a great diversity of mammal species. Apart from the four big cats, smaller carnivores include red panda, red fox, yellow-throated marten, Eurasian otter, Oriental small-clawed otter, spotted linsang, binturong, common palm civet, small indian civet, large indian civet, masked palm civet, marbled cat, fishing cat, Asiatic golden cat, and two species of mongoose. Large herbivores are represented by elephants, wild boar, forest musk deer, Indian muntjac, hog deer, sambar, gaur, common goral, mainland serow, takin and bharal. Seven species of non-human primates including stump-tailed macaque and slow loris, hoolock gibbons, capped langurs, Assamese macaques and rhesus Macaques.

Irrfan Yaseen Khan, also credited as simply Irfan, is an Indian film actor, known for his work predominantly in Hindi cinema, as well as his works in British films and Hollywood. In a film career spanning around 30 years, Khan has received numerous awards, including a National Film Award and Filmfare Awards. Khan played the adult version of Piscine “Pi” Molitor Patel in Ang Lee’s film adaptation of “Life of Pi”, Yann Martel’s 2001 novel of the same name.

The Hyundai Atos is a city car that was produced by the South Korean automobile manufacturer Hyundai from 1997 until 2014. It was also marketed under the names Atoz, Amica and Kia Visto among others in different countries. Hyundai entered the Indian market in 1997 with the Atos, marketed under the name Santro. It was replaced in most markets by the i10 in 2007, but production continued in India until late 2014. The Santro nameplate, used in India, was revived in October 2018.

“Midnight’s Children” is a 1981 novel by British Indian author Salman Rushdie. It deals with India’s transition from British colonialism to Independence and the Partition of British India. It is considered an example of postcolonial, postmodern, and magical realist literature. The story is told by its chief protagonist, Saleem Sinai, and is set in the context of actual historical events. “Midnight’s Children” won both the Booker Prize and the James Tait Black Memorial Prize in 1981. It was awarded the “Booker of Bookers” Prize and the best all-time prize winners in 1993 and 2008 to celebrate the Booker Prize 25th and 40th anniversary.

Sir Dadabhai Naoroji Dordi (1825-1917), also known as the “Grand Old Man of India” and “Unofficial Ambassador of India”, was a British Parsi scholar, trader and politician who was a Liberal Party member of parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895, and the first Indian to be a British MP, notwithstanding the Anglo-Indian MP David Ochterlony Dyce Sombre, who was disenfranchised for corruption. Naoroji was one of the founding members of the Indian National Congress. His book “Poverty and Un-British Rule in India” brought attention to the draining of India’s wealth into Britain. 

In cricket, a slip fielder (collectively, a slip cordon or the slips) is placed behind the batter on the off side of the field. They are placed with the aim of catching an edged ball which is beyond the wicket-keeper’s reach. Many teams employ two or three slips (numbered from the slip fielder closest to the wicket-keeper: first slip, second slip, etc.).

Gallup, Inc. is an American analytics and advisory company based in Washington, D.C. George Gallup (1901-1984) founded the American Institute of Public Opinion, the precursor of the Gallup Organization, in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1935.Gallup attempted to make his company’s polls fair by sampling demographics representative of each state’s voters. In 1936, Gallup successfully predicted that Franklin Roosevelt would defeat Alfred Landon for the US presidency in direct contradiction to the popular “The Literary Digest”; this event popularised the company and made it a leader in American polling. By 1948, Gallup’s company established polling organisations in a dozen other countries and Gallup’s polls were syndicated in newspapers in the US and abroad. The modern Gallup Organization was formed in 1958, when George Gallup grouped all of his polling operations into one organisation.

Philips is a Dutch multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Amsterdam, one of the largest electronics companies in the world, currently focused in the area of health technology. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891 by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik, with their first products being light bulbs. It was once one of the largest electronic conglomerates in the world. Philips is organised into two main divisions: Philips Consumer Health and Well-being (formerly Philips Consumer Electronics and Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care) and Philips Professional Healthcare (formerly Philips Medical Systems). In 2013, Philips announced that it was introducing its new brand line, “Innovation and You”, to replace its earlier “Sense and Simplicity”. “We believe that the new brand positioning much better reflects Philips’ mission to improve people’s lives through meaningful innovation. As a technology company, our commitment is to deliver innovation that will drive our future growth and matters to people,” Marketingweek.com quoted Philips CEO FRank van Houten as saying following the launch of the new brand line.

Africa is the world’s second-largest and second-most populous continent. At about 30.3 million sq km, including adjacent islands, it covers 6 per cent of Earth’s total surface area and 20 per cent of its land area. With 1.3 billion people as of 2018, it accounts for about 16 per cent of the world’s human population. While Africa has 54 countries, Asia has 48 countries, South America 12, and Europe 44.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations member states in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future. At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries – developed and developing – in a global partnership. SDG 4 is ensuring quality education for all. Following are the targets of SDG 4: by 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and Goal-4 effective learning outcomes; by 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and preprimary education so that they are ready for primary education; by 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university; by 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship; by 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations; by 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy; by 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development; build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, nonviolent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all; by 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries; and by 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing states.


Roald Dahl (1916-1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, poet, screenwriter, and fighter pilot. His books have sold more than 250 million copies worldwide. “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” is a 1964 children’s novel by Dahl. The story features the adventures of young Charlie Bucket inside the chocolate factory of eccentric chocolatier Willy Wonka. “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” was first published in the United States by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. in 1964 and in the United Kingdom by George Allen & Unwin, 11 months later. The book has been adapted into two major motion pictures: “Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory” in 1971, and “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” in 2005. The book’s sequel, “Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator”, was written by Roald Dahl in 1971 and published in 1972.